Packaging Applications with Kaboxer

Table of Contents

Some applications can’t be packaged properly, for example when they have dependencies on obsolete libraries that are no longer available in Kali. Others need to run in isolation because their behaviour would break other applications on the system.

To overcome those problems, we have created Kaboxer to manage such applications within containers and make them available in Kali Linux (and other Debian-based) systems like any other application. They can be launched from the menu and can be installed with apt install.

Looks interesting? Let’s see how you can package an application with this new framework. First install the tool itself:

kali@kali:~$ sudo apt install -y kaboxer

Introduction to Kaboxer

The idea of Kaboxer is to prepare ready-to-run application images, make them available online in a Docker registry and then let users fetch those images and start/stop containers to run the applications. All those steps are handled with the kaboxer command line tool.

To stay close to the usual way of distributing applications through Debian packages, Kaboxer makes it easy to build packages that will transparently download the Docker image at installation time and that will seamlessly integrate the application in the system. This is notably achieved by providing some integration with the debhelper tool (with dh_kaboxer and a specific build system).

In this tutorial, we will successively build the image and run the application but in practice both steps usually happen in different contexts: the build happens once on a server that uploads the resulting image in a public registry, whereas end-users only download the image to run it.

Packaging a simple application with Kaboxer


The commands described in this tutorial should be run from within the hello-kbx directory, which is part of the Kaboxer source code. You can get it with Git:

kali@kali:~$ git clone
Cloning into 'kaboxer'...

kali@kali:~$ cd kaboxer/hello-kbx

Kaboxer needs access to the Docker daemon so you must ensure that your user has the required rights: it needs to be part either of the docker group (which has direct write access to the Docker socket) or of the kaboxer group (which can get the required permissions with sudo).

If you installed Kali 2020.4 or newer, the initial user created during installation should already be part of the kaboxer group and have the required privileges. You can check with the command groups:

kali@kali:~$ groups
[...] kaboxer [...]

If your current user is not part of the kaboxer group, then you should grant the group membership with the following command:

kali@kali:~$ sudo adduser $USER kaboxer

Note that the new group membership will only be visible after having restarted your user session (or after having created a new sub-session with a command like sg, newgrp or su).

Creating a Docker image

Kaboxer currently only supports Docker as the isolation/container mechanism. As such, the first step when preparing an application to be packaged with Kaboxer (“kaboxed” for short) is to write a Dockerfile. There are few options that are required by Kaboxer, but otherwise it’s a standard Dockerfile. For instance, the hello-cli application uses the following Dockerfile:

FROM debian:stable-slim
RUN apt update && apt install -y \
    python3 \
COPY ./hello /usr/bin/hello
RUN mkdir /kaboxer \
 && hello version > /kaboxer/version

Pretty straightforward, except for the last lines that save the version of the application in /kaboxer/version. This is used by Kaboxer to track the “upstream” version of the application being packaged. Note the starting point of the image (which is based on a slimmed-down version of Debian), and the installation of a couple of packages that are dependencies of hello-cli (namely, python3 and python3-prompt-toolkit). In this case, the application consists of a single hello program that is installed inside the container as /usr/bin/hello.

Now given this Dockerfile, we can build a Docker image for the app.

Adding Kaboxer meta-information

Kaboxer is more than that though, as it allows distributing this image in various ways, and more importantly it allows adding instructions on how to run that image so that the kaboxed app can be seamlessly integrated within the system and run just like any other app. This is done via a kaboxer.yaml file; it will most likely be named hello-cli.kaboxer.yaml, in order to distinguish it from files for other apps in the same directory. This file uses the YAML syntax for machine-readability, but it’s also quite human-readable (and, more to the point, human-writable). A minimal kaboxer.yaml file could read like the following:

  id: hello-cli
  name: Hello World for Kaboxer (CLI)
  description: >
    hello-kbx is the hello-world application demonstrator for Kaboxer
  revision: 1
    run_mode: cli
    executable: /usr/bin/hello cli

The required information is split into sections and subsections, with a clear structure. The application section describes the app itself; the packaging section contains metadata about the packaging of the app. The third section, components, describes each component of the app (there’s only one for hello-cli, but we’ll see a multi-component app later). The most important fields within each subsection are executable, which specifies how to start the app within the container, and run_mode, which describes what kind of app this is. In our case, we picked cli, which is for text-mode apps.

Building the image and testing it

There, we have our two required files. Now let’s build the Kaboxer image:

kali@kali:~$ kaboxer build hello-cli

As mentioned above, Kaboxer requires privileges to use Docker, hence this command will fail if you’re not part of either the docker or the kaboxer group.

Note that if the build fails, Kaboxer will not provide much information to figure out what’s going wrong. In that case, you should try to build your Docker image directly with docker build so that you can see the precise error message. Here’s how you would do that (you need membership in the docker group, or root rights):

kali@kali:~$ docker build -f hello-cli.Dockerfile -t kaboxer/hello-cli .

Once kaboxer build ran successfully, let’s try running the app in its container with the following command:

kali@kali:~$ kaboxer run hello-cli
PermissionError: [Errno 13] Permission denied: '/var/lib/hello-kbx'

Ouch! If you look into the file hello-cli.kaboxer.yaml, you can see that the directory /var/lib/hello-kbx is expected to exist in order to be mounted in the container at /data. Creating this directory requires root privileges, and it’s something that would be done by the package manager if you were to install hello-cli-kbx with APT.

For the sake of our example here, the most simple solution is to use another directory, that can be created automatically without requiring root privileges. Let’s use /tmp/hello-kbx instead:

$ sed -i 's;/var/lib/hello-kbx;/tmp/hello-kbx;' *.kaboxer.yaml

Now let’s try to run the app again:

kali@kali:~$ kaboxer run hello-cli
fetch | save <value> | delete | exit ?

Voilà, hello-cli is now running in isolation!

There’s not much it can do alone, and the next step would be to build hello-server, run it in a separate terminal, and then use hello-cli to communicate with the server. It should be straightforward enough so we won’t cover this part, instead let’s jump to the next topic: Debian packaging files.

Adding Debian packaging files

You can add the initial packaging files with dh_make like for any other application. Besides the usual changes, we tweak a few files to enable the integration with Kaboxer:

  1. we add kaboxer to Build-Depends in debian/control so that the debhelper integration offered by Kaboxer is available at build-time
  2. we ensure that we have ${misc:Depends} in the Depends fields in debian/control so that dh_kaboxer can inject the appropriate dependency (mainly on Docker and Kaboxer currently)
  3. we modify debian/rules to enable the debhelper integrations by changing the dh $@ call into dh $@ --with kaboxer --buildsystem=kaboxer
kali@kali:~$ cat debian/control
Source: hello-kbx
Build-Depends: debhelper-compat (= 13), kaboxer

Package: hello-cli-kbx
Architecture: all
Depends: ${misc:Depends}

kali@kali:~$ cat debian/rules
#!/usr/bin/make -f

	dh $@ --with=kaboxer --buildsystem=kaboxer

At this point, you can build a Debian package already but it will not work properly because it doesn’t know how to retrieve the Docker image.

You can either push the image to some Docker registry and modify the kaboxer.yaml file to point to it:

kali@kali:~$ cat kaboxer.yaml
  type: docker
      image: kalilinux/packages/hello-kbx/hello

Or you can tell the build system to build the image and store it in the package (beware, the package will be very large!) by setting the DH_KABOXER_BUILD_STRATEGY variable in debian/rules:

kali@kali:~$ cat debian/rules
#!/usr/bin/make -f


	dh $@ --with=kaboxer --buildsystem=kaboxer

More Kaboxer features

Sharing resources (network or file system)

Many times, even though the app runs in its isolated container, you’ll want to let it interact with the outside world in some way, either by sharing some part of the file system or by letting it access the network.

Sharing a part of the file system is a simple matter of defining a “mount” for the component. A “mount” makes a source directory (on the host) available inside the container as the target directory. This allows persisting data across runs, since even if the container is stopped and removed, the data that is stored in the source directory is not touched. It also allows sharing parts of the file system across containers. For instance, assuming we want to make the /var/lib/hello-kbx directory available to the container as /data, we’d add the following section to our component definition:

      - source: /var/lib/hello-kbx
        target: /data

For applications that need interaction, it will often be necessary to also allow the app to be accessed from outside the container. In many cases, it will just be a matter of exposing one port. For instance, the following exposes port 8123 from the container (but no other: if the app itself uses several ports internally, only the published ports will be accessible from outside the container):

      - 8123

Multi-component applications

Kaboxer also allows packaging applications that have different components, for instance a server part and a client part; they can either be run in isolation or in a shared container, depending on the needs.

The simple, “shared container” scenario is illustrated by hello-allinone-kbx; the hello application has all three components in the same Kaboxer app, and they run in the same container. For that, once the server part is running in its container, the other parts need to be started within that running container. Kaboxer automates that when the client components declare the following:

    reuse_container: true

In more complex scenarios, application may need to isolate the components from one another, but still allow them to communicate through the network. It would of course be possible to publish ports to the outside of the server container, but that would leave them open to the world; in that case, it’s simpler to just define a private network and plug the containers into this network. For instance, both hello-cli-kbx and hello-server-kbx define the following network:

      - hello-kbx

This means that even though the server part is not accessible from the host outside the server container, it is accessible from the cli container: the cli can connect to the hello-server-kbx host and the connection will be automatically routed through the private network to the other container.

Integrating the application in the Kali menu

When applications are packaged for Kali, they are integrated in the Kali menu for easy discovery. Applications packaged with the help of Kaboxer should make no exception. Kaboxer is already generating a .desktop file, so the only thing that is left to do is to ensure that the Categories entry is populated with values used by the Kali menu. You can find a list of the categories in this file.

Adding a category to the desktop file can be easily done through the kaboxer.yaml file (with the categories field below application). Here’s for example how you would put an application in the “Bluetooth tools” and “Wireless Attacks” categories:

  categories: Utility;06-02-bluetooth-tools;06-wireless-attacks

Convenience command-line helpers

If you run your applications from the command-line, it can be cumbersome to always type kaboxer run --some-option --another-option APP, hence Kaboxer automatically generates command-line helpers that are named after the application ID, the component name (if there’s more than one component), and a -kbx suffix.

With these helpers, you can simply start the hello server with hello-server-kbx start, run the cli with hello-cli-kbx, and finally stop the server with hello-server-kbx stop.

Automating the build with GitLab CI

To make it super easy to maintain Kaboxer applications, we are storing the Kaboxer files in Git repositories and we rely on GitLab CI to rebuild the Docker image every time that we push a change.

The Kaboxer project contains a generic GitLab CI file that you can just remotely include in your project (example here). It will build the image and upload it to the project’s Docker registry provided by GitLab. The kaboxer.yaml file must be updated to reference the URL of that Docker registry and Kaboxer will then download the image from that location when needed.

The repository also contains the Debian packaging files so that we can build a Kali package like for any other normal application.

Going further

This tutorial is only about getting started with Kaboxer; all the options are described in more details in the appropriate manual pages, namely kaboxer(1) and kaboxer.yaml(5). The kaboxer package also provides a rather comprehensive sample hello-kbx application that illustrates the settings and the operation; have a look in /usr/share/doc/kaboxer/examples/hello-kbx.

Updated on: 2023-Jun-30
Authors: lolando , rhertzog