dd_rescue Usage Example
Start at position 100 of the input file (
-s 100 /var/log/messages) and write, beginning at position 0 of the destination file (
-S 0 /tmp/ddrescue-out):
[email protected]:~# dd_rescue -s 100 /var/log/messages -S 0 /tmp/ddrescue-out dd_rescue: (info): Using softbs=65536, hardbs=4096 dd_rescue: (info) expect to copy 1766kB from /var/log/messages dd_rescue: (info): ipos: 1024.1k, opos: 1024.0k, xferd: 1024.0k errs: 0, errxfer: 0.0k, succxfer: 1024.0k +curr.rate: 1122807kB/s, avg.rate: 1018906kB/s, avg.load: 0.0% >.......................-.................< 57% ETA: 0:00:00 dd_rescue: (info): read /var/log/messages (1767.0k): EOF dd_rescue: (info): Summary for /var/log/messages -> /tmp/ddrescue-out: dd_rescue: (info): ipos: 1767.0k, opos: 1767.0k, xferd: 1767.0k errs: 0, errxfer: 0.0k, succxfer: 1767.0k +curr.rate: 352945kB/s, avg.rate: 568151kB/s, avg.load: 0.0% >.......................-................-< 100% ETA: 0:00:00
Packages and Binaries:
When your disk has crashed and you try to copy it over to another one, standard Unix tools like cp, cat, and dd will abort on every I/O error, dd_rescue does not. It optimizes copying by using large blocks as long as no errors occur and falls back to smaller blocks. It supports reverse direction copying (to approach a bad spot from the top), sparse copying, preallocating space, splice zerocopy, and bypassing the kernel pagecache with O_DIRECT. dd_rescue provides safe deletion of data by overwriting files (or better partitions/disks) multiple times with fast random numbers. With the ddr_hash plugin, it supports calculating a hash value (such as a sha256sum) or an HMAC during copying.
How to install:
sudo apt install ddrescue
Data recovery and protection tool
[email protected]:~# dd_rescue -h dd_rescue Version 1.99.13, [email protected], GNU GPL v2/v3 (DD_RESCUE_1_99_13) (compiled May 10 2023 19:21:14 by gcc (Debian 12.2.0-14) 12.2.0) (features: O_DIRECT dl/libfallocate fallocate splice fitrim xattr rdrnd avx2) dd_rescue is free software. It's protected by the terms of GNU GPL v2 or v3 (at your option). dd_rescue copies data from one file (or device or pipe) to others. USAGE: dd_rescue [options] infile outfile Options: -s ipos start position in input file (default=0), -S opos start position in output file (def=ipos), -b softbs block size for copy operation (def=131072, 1048576 for -d), -B hardbs fallback block size in case of errs (def=4096, 512 for -d), -e maxerr exit after maxerr errors (def=0=infinite), -m maxxfer maximum amount of data to be transferred (def=0=inf), -M avoid extending outfile, -x count opos from the end of outfile (eXtend), -y syncsz frequency of fsync calls in bytes (def=512*softbs), -l logfile name of a file to log errors and summary to (def=""), -o bbfile name of a file to log bad blocks numbers (def=""), -r reverse direction copy (def=forward), -R repeatedly write same block (def if infile is /dev/zero), -t truncate output file at start (def=no), -T truncate output file at last pos (def=no), -u undo writes by deleting outfile and issuing fstrim -d/D use O_DIRECT for input/output (def=no), -k use efficient in-kernel zerocopy splice, -P use fallocate to preallocate target space, -L plug1[=par1[:par2]][,plug2[,..]] load plugins, -w abort on Write errors (def=no), -W read target block and avoid Writes if identical (def=no), -a detect zero-filled blocks and write spArsely (def=no), -A Always write blocks, zeroed if err (def=no), -i interactive: ask before overwriting data (def=no), -f force: skip some sanity checks (def=no), -p preserve: preserve ownership, perms, times, attrs (def=no), -C limit rateControl: avoid xfer data faster than limit B/s -Y oname Secondary output file (multiple possible), -F off[-off]r/rep[,off[-off]w/rep[,...]] fault injection (hardbs off) r/w -q quiet operation, -v verbose operation, -c 0/1 switch off/on colors (def=auto), -V display version and exit, -h display this help and exit. Instead of infile, -z/Z SEED or -z/Z SEEDFILE may be specified, taking the PRNG from libc or frandom (RC4 based) as input. SEED = 0 means a time based seed; Using /dev/urandom as SEEDFILE gives good pseudo random numbers. Likewise, -3 SEED/SEEDFILE will overwrite ofile 3 times (r,ir,0, BSI M7.15). With -4 SEED/SEEDFILE you get an additional random pass (r,ir,r2,0). With -2 SEED/SEEDFILE you only get one random pass (r,0). Sizes may be given in units b(=512), k(=1024), M(=1024^2) or G(1024^3) bytes This program is useful to rescue data in case of I/O errors, because it does not normally abort or truncate the output. It may also help data protection by securely overwriting data. There are plugins for compression, hashing and encryption. Have a look a the man page for more details and long options.
Updated on: 2023-May-16