Packages and Binaries:

tightvncserver

VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures.

This package provides a server to which X clients can connect and the server generates a display that can be viewed with a vncviewer.

The difference between the tightvncserver and the normal vncserver is the data encoding, optimized for low bandwidth connections. If the client do not support jpeg or zlib encoding it can use the default one. Later versions of vncserver (> 3.3.3r2) support a new automatic encoding that should be equally good as the tightvnc encoding.

Note: This server does not support or need a display. You need a vncviewer to see something. However, this viewer may also be on a computer running other operating systems in the local net.

Installed size: 1.71 MB
How to install: sudo apt install tightvncserver

  • libc6
  • libjpeg62-turbo
  • libx11-6
  • perl
  • x11-common | xserver-common
  • x11-utils
  • xauth
  • zlib1g
Xtightvnc

An X server providing VNC connectivity

root@kali:~# Xtightvnc -h
Unrecognized option: -h
use: X [:<display>] [option]
-a #                   mouse acceleration (pixels)
-ac                    disable access control restrictions
-audit int             set audit trail level
-auth file             select authorization file
bc                     enable bug compatibility
-bs                    disable any backing store support
-c                     turns off key-click
c #                    key-click volume (0-100)
-cc int                default color visual class
-co file               color database file
-core                  generate core dump on fatal error
-dpi int               screen resolution in dots per inch
-deferglyphs [none|all|16] defer loading of [no|all|16-bit] glyphs
-f #                   bell base (0-100)
-fc string             cursor font
-fn string             default font name
-fp string             default font path
-help                  prints message with these options
-I                     ignore all remaining arguments
-ld int                limit data space to N Kb
-lf int                limit number of open files to N
-ls int                limit stack space to N Kb
-nolock                disable the locking mechanism
-logo                  enable logo in screen saver
nologo                 disable logo in screen saver
-nolisten string       don't listen on protocol
-p #                   screen-saver pattern duration (minutes)
-pn                    accept failure to listen on all ports
-nopn                  reject failure to listen on all ports
-r                     turns off auto-repeat
r                      turns on auto-repeat 
-s #                   screen-saver timeout (minutes)
-su                    disable any save under support
-t #                   mouse threshold (pixels)
-terminate             terminate at server reset
-to #                  connection time out
-tst                   disable testing extensions
ttyxx                  server started from init on /dev/ttyxx
v                      video blanking for screen-saver
-v                     screen-saver without video blanking
-wm                    WhenMapped default backing-store
-x string              loads named extension at init time 
-query host-name       contact named host for XDMCP
-broadcast             broadcast for XDMCP
-indirect host-name    contact named host for indirect XDMCP
-port port-num         UDP port number to send messages to
-once                  Terminate server after one session
-class display-class   specify display class to send in manage
-cookie xdm-auth-bits  specify the magic cookie for XDMCP
-displayID display-id  manufacturer display ID for request
-geometry WxH          set framebuffer width & height
-depth D               set framebuffer depth
-pixelformat format    set pixel format (BGRnnn or RGBnnn)
-udpinputport port     UDP port for keyboard/pointer data
-rfbport port          TCP port for RFB protocol
-rfbwait time          max time in ms to wait for RFB client
-nocursor              don't put up a cursor
-rfbauth passwd-file   use authentication on RFB protocol
-httpd dir             serve files via HTTP from here
-httpport port         port for HTTP
-deferupdate time      time in ms to defer updates (default 40)
-economictranslate     less memory-hungry translation
-lazytight             disable "gradient" filter in tight encoding
-desktop name          VNC desktop name (default x11)
-alwaysshared          always treat new clients as shared
-nevershared           never treat new clients as shared
-dontdisconnect        don't disconnect existing clients when a new non-shared
                       connection comes in (refuse new connection instead)
-viewonly              let clients only to view the desktop
-localhost             only allow connections from localhost
-interface ipaddr      only bind to specified interface address
-inetd                 Xvnc is launched by inetd
-compatiblekbd         set META key = ALT key as in the original VNC
-version               report Xvnc version on stderr

tightvncconnect

Connect a VNC server to a VNC viewer

root@kali:~# tightvncconnect -h
usage: tightvncconnect [-display Xvnc-display] host[:port]
Tells Xvnc to connect to a listening VNC viewer on the given host and port

tightvncpasswd

Set passwords for VNC server

root@kali:~# man tightvncpasswd
vncpasswd(1)                       TightVNC                       vncpasswd(1)

NAME
       vncpasswd - set passwords for VNC server

SYNOPSIS
       vncpasswd [file]
       vncpasswd -t
       vncpasswd -f

DESCRIPTION
       The vncpasswd utility should be used to create and change passwords for
       the TightVNC server  authentication.  Xvnc  uses  such  passwords  when
       started with the -rfbauth command-line option (or when started from the
       vncserver script).

       vncpasswd allows one to enter either one or two  passwords.  The  first
       password  is the primary one, the second password can be used for view-
       only authentication. Xvnc will restrict mouse and keyboard  input  from
       clients  who  authenticated  with the view-only password. The vncpasswd
       utility asks interactively if it should set the second password.

       The password file name defaults to $HOME/.vnc/passwd unless the -t com-
       mand-line  option  was  used  (see  the  OPTIONS  section  below).  The
       $HOME/.vnc/ directory will be created if it does not exist.

       Each password has to be longer than five characters (unless the -f com-
       mand-line  option was used, see its description below).  Only the first
       eight characters are significant. If the primary password is too short,
       the  program  will  abort. If the view-only password is too short, then
       only the primary password will be saved.

       Unless a file name was provided in the  command-line  explicitly,  this
       utility may perform certain sanity checks to prevent writing a password
       file into some hazardous place.

       If at least one password was saved successfully,  vncpasswd  will  exit
       with  status  code 0. Otherwise the returned status code will be set to
       1.

OPTIONS
       -t     Write  passwords  into   /tmp/$USER-vnc/passwd,   creating   the
              /tmp/$USER-vnc/ directory if it does not exist, and checking the
              permissions on that directory (the mode must be 700).  This  op-
              tion  can  help to improve security when your home partition may
              be shared via network (e.g. when using NFS).

       -f     Filter mode. Read plain-text passwords  from  stdin,  write  en-
              crypted  versions  to stdout. One or two passwords (full-control
              and view-only) can be supplied in the input stream, newline ter-
              minates a password.  Note that in the filter mode, short or even
              empty passwords will be silently accepted.

SEE ALSO
       vncserver(1), Xvnc(1), vncviewer(1), vncconnect(1)

AUTHORS
       Original VNC was developed in AT&T Laboratories Cambridge. TightVNC ad-
       ditions  were  implemented  by  Constantin Kaplinsky. Many other people
       participated in development, testing and support.

       Man page authors:
       Marcus Brinkmann <Marcus.Brinkmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de>,
       Tim Waugh <twaugh@redhat.com>,
       Constantin Kaplinsky <const@tightvnc.com>

                                  August 2006                     vncpasswd(1)

tightvncserver

A wrapper to launch an X server for VNC.

root@kali:~# tightvncserver -h
TightVNC Server version 1.3.10

Usage: tightvncserver [<OPTIONS>] [:<DISPLAY#>]
       tightvncserver -kill :<DISPLAY#>

<OPTIONS> are Xtightvnc options, or:

        -name <DESKTOP-NAME>
        -depth <DEPTH>
        -geometry <WIDTH>x<HEIGHT>
        -httpport number
        -basehttpport number
        -alwaysshared
        -nevershared
        -pixelformat rgb<NNN>
        -pixelformat bgr<NNN>

See vncserver and Xtightvnc manual pages for more information.

xtightvncviewer

VNC stands for Virtual Network Computing. It is, in essence, a remote display system which allows you to view a computing `desktop' environment not only on the machine where it is running, but from anywhere on the Internet and from a wide variety of machine architectures.

It is implemented in a client/server model. This package provides a client for X, with this you can connect to a vncserver somewhere in the network and display its content in a window. There are vncserver available for other operating systems.

The difference between the xtightvncviewer and the normal vncviewer is the data encoding, optimized for low bandwidth connections. If the client do not support jpeg or zlib encoding it can use the default one. Later versions of xvncviewer (> 3.3.3r2) support a new automatic encoding that should be equally good as the tightvnc encoding.

Installed size: 192 KB
How to install: sudo apt install xtightvncviewer

  • libc6
  • libjpeg62-turbo
  • libx11-6
  • libxaw7
  • libxext6
  • libxmu6
  • libxt6
  • zlib1g
xtightvncviewer

An X viewer client for VNC

root@kali:~# man xtightvncviewer
vncviewer(1)                       TightVNC                       vncviewer(1)

NAME
       vncviewer - an X viewer client for VNC

SYNOPSIS
       vncviewer [options] [host][:display]
       vncviewer [options] [host][::port]
       vncviewer [options] -listen [display]
       vncviewer -help

DESCRIPTION
       vncviewer  is  an Xt-based client application for the VNC (Virtual Net-
       work Computing) system. It can connect  to  any  VNC-compatible  server
       such  as Xvnc or WinVNC, allowing you to control desktop environment of
       a different machine.

       You can use F8 to display a pop-up utility menu. Press F8 twice to pass
       single F8 to the remote side.

OPTIONS
       -help  Prints a short usage notice to stderr.

       -listen
              Make  the viewer listen on port 5500+display for reverse connec-
              tions from a server. WinVNC supports reverse  connections  using
              the  "Add  New Client" menu option, or the -connect command line
              option. Xvnc requires the use of the helper program vncconnect.

       -via gateway
              Automatically create encrypted TCP tunnel to the gateway machine
              before  connection,  connect  to  the  host  through that tunnel
              (TightVNC-specific). By default, this option invokes  SSH  local
              port forwarding, assuming that SSH client binary can be accessed
              as /usr/bin/ssh. Note that when using the -via option, the  host
              machine  name  should  be  specified as known to the gateway ma-
              chine, e.g.  "localhost" denotes the gateway,  not  the  machine
              where  vncviewer was launched. See the ENVIRONMENT section below
              for the information on configuring the -via option.

       -shared
              When connecting, specify that a shared connection is  requested.
              In TightVNC, this is the default mode, allowing you to share the
              desktop with other clients already using it.

       -noshared
              When connecting, specify that the session  may  not  be  shared.
              This  would  either disconnect other connected clients or refuse
              your connection, depending on the server configuration.

       -viewonly
              Disable transfer of mouse and keyboard events from the client to
              the server.

       -fullscreen
              Start  in  full-screen  mode.  Please be aware that operating in
              full-screen mode may confuse X window managers. Typically,  such
              conflicts  cause  incorrect  handling of input focus or make the
              viewer window disappear mysteriously. See the grabKeyboard  set-
              ting  in the RESOURCES section below for a method to solve input
              focus problem.

       -noraiseonbeep
              By default, the viewer shows and raises  its  window  on  remote
              beep   (bell)   event.   This  option  disables  such  behaviour
              (TightVNC-specific).

       -passwd passwd-file
              File from which to get the password (as generated  by  the  vnc-
              passwd(1)  program).  This  option affects only the standard VNC
              authentication.

       -encodings encoding-list
              TightVNC supports several different compression methods  to  en-
              code  screen updates; this option specifies a set of them to use
              in order of preference. Encodings are specified  separated  with
              spaces,  and must thus be enclosed in quotes if more than one is
              specified. Available encodings, in default order  for  a  remote
              connection, are "copyrect tight hextile zlib corre rre raw". For
              a local connection (to the same machine), the default  order  to
              try is "raw copyrect tight hextile zlib corre rre". Raw encoding
              is always assumed as a last option if no other encoding  can  be
              used for some reason. For more information on encodings, see the
              section ENCODINGS below.

       -bgr233
              Always use the BGR233 format to encode pixel data. This  reduces
              network traffic, but colors may be represented inaccurately. The
              bgr233 format is an 8-bit "true color" format, with 2 bits blue,
              3 bits green, and 3 bits red.

       -owncmap
              Try to use a PseudoColor visual and a private colormap. This al-
              lows the VNC server to control the colormap.

       -truecolour, -truecolor
              Try to use a TrueColor visual.

       -depth depth
              On an X server which supports multiple TrueColor visuals of dif-
              ferent  depths,  attempt  to  use the specified one (in bits per
              pixel); if successful, this depth will be requested from the VNC
              server.

       -compresslevel level
              Use  specified  compression  level (0..9) for "tight" and "zlib"
              encodings (TightVNC-specific). Level 1 uses minimum of CPU  time
              and  achieves weak compression ratios, while level 9 offers best
              compression but is slow in terms of CPU time consumption on  the
              server side. Use high levels with very slow network connections,
              and low levels when working over high-speed LANs. It's not  rec-
              ommended  to  use  compression level 0, reasonable choices start
              from the level 1.

       -quality level
              Use the specified JPEG quality level (0..9) for the "tight"  en-
              coding  (TightVNC-specific).  Quality  level 0 denotes bad image
              quality but very impressive compression ratios,  while  level  9
              offers very good image quality at lower compression ratios. Note
              that the "tight" encoder uses JPEG to encode only  those  screen
              areas that look suitable for lossy compression, so quality level
              0 does not always mean unacceptable image quality.

       -nojpeg
              Disable lossy JPEG compression in Tight encoding  (TightVNC-spe-
              cific).   Disabling JPEG compression is not a good idea in typi-
              cal cases, as that makes the Tight encoder less  efficient.  You
              might  want  to  use this option if it's absolutely necessary to
              achieve perfect image quality (see also the -quality option).

       -nocursorshape
              Disable cursor shape updates, protocol extensions used to handle
              remote   cursor   movements   locally   on   the   client   side
              (TightVNC-specific). Using cursor shape updates decreases delays
              with  remote  cursor  movements, and can improve bandwidth usage
              dramatically.

       -x11cursor
              Use a real X11 cursor with X-style cursor shape updates, instead
              of  drawing  the  remote  cursor on the framebuffer. This option
              also disables the dot cursor, and disables cursor  position  up-
              dates in non-fullscreen mode.

       -autopass
              Read  a plain-text password from stdin. This option affects only
              the standard VNC authentication.

ENCODINGS
       The server supplies information in whatever format is  desired  by  the
       client,  in  order to make the client as easy as possible to implement.
       If the client represents itself as able to use  multiple  formats,  the
       server will choose one.

       Pixel  format  refers to the representation of an individual pixel. The
       most common formats are 24 and 16 bit "true-color"  values,  and  8-bit
       "color  map" representations, where an arbitrary map converts the color
       number to RGB values.

       Encoding refers to how a rectangle of pixels are sent (all pixel infor-
       mation in VNC is sent as rectangles). All rectangles come with a header
       giving the location and size of the rectangle and an encoding type used
       by the data which follows. These types are listed below.

       Raw    The  raw  encoding  simply  sends width*height pixel values. All
              clients are required to support this encoding type. Raw is  also
              the  fastest when the server and viewer are on the same machine,
              as the connection speed is essentially infinite and raw encoding
              minimizes processing time.

       CopyRect
              The Copy Rectangle encoding is efficient when something is being
              moved; the only data sent is the location of  a  rectangle  from
              which  data  should  be copied to the current location. Copyrect
              could also be used to efficiently transmit a repeated pattern.

       RRE    The Rise-and-Run-length-Encoding is basically a  2D  version  of
              run-length encoding (RLE). In this encoding, a sequence of iden-
              tical pixels are compressed to a single value and repeat  count.
              In  VNC,  this  is implemented with a background color, and then
              specifications of an arbitrary number of subrectangles and color
              for each. This is an efficient encoding for large blocks of con-
              stant color.

       CoRRE  This is a minor variation on RRE, using  a  maximum  of  255x255
              pixel rectangles. This allows for single-byte values to be used,
              reducing packet size. This is in general more efficient, because
              the  savings  from sending 1-byte values generally outweighs the
              losses from the (relatively rare) cases where very large regions
              are painted the same color.

       Hextile
              Here,  rectangles are split up in to 16x16 tiles, which are sent
              in a predetermined order. The data within the tiles is sent  ei-
              ther raw or as a variant on RRE. Hextile encoding is usually the
              best choice for using in high-speed network  environments  (e.g.
              Ethernet local-area networks).

       Zlib   Zlib  is  a  very simple encoding that uses zlib library to com-
              press raw pixel data. This encoding achieves  good  compression,
              but  consumes  a  lot  of CPU time. Support for this encoding is
              provided for compatibility with VNC servers that might  not  un-
              derstand  Tight  encoding  which  is more efficient than Zlib in
              nearly all real-life situations.

       Tight  Like Zlib encoding, Tight encoding uses zlib library to compress
              the  pixel  data, but it pre-processes data to maximize compres-
              sion ratios, and to minimize CPU  usage  on  compression.  Also,
              JPEG  compression  may be used to encode color-rich screen areas
              (see the description of -quality  and  -nojpeg  options  above).
              Tight encoding is usually the best choice for low-bandwidth net-
              work environments (e.g. slow modem connections).

RESOURCES
       X resources that vncviewer knows about, aside from the  normal  Xt  re-
       sources, are as follows:

       shareDesktop
              Equivalent of -shared/-noshared options. Default true.

       viewOnly
              Equivalent of -viewonly option. Default false.

       fullScreen
              Equivalent of -fullscreen option. Default false.

       grabKeyboard
              Grab  keyboard in full-screen mode. This can help to solve prob-
              lems with losing keyboard focus. Default false.

       raiseOnBeep
              Equivalent of -noraiseonbeep option, when set to false.  Default
              true.

       passwordFile
              Equivalent of -passwd option.

       userLogin
              Equivalent of -user option.

       passwordDialog
              Whether to use a dialog box to get the password (true) or get it
              from the tty (false). Irrelevant if passwordFile is set. Default
              false.

       encodings
              Equivalent of -encodings option.

       compressLevel
              Equivalent of -compresslevel option (TightVNC-specific).

       qualityLevel
              Equivalent of -quality option (TightVNC-specific).

       enableJPEG
              Equivalent of -nojpeg option, when set to false. Default true.

       useRemoteCursor
              Equivalent   of   -nocursorshape   option,  when  set  to  false
              (TightVNC-specific). Default true.

       useBGR233
              Equivalent of -bgr233 option. Default false.

       nColours
              When using BGR233, try to allocate this many "exact" colors from
              the  BGR233  color  cube.  When using a shared colormap, setting
              this resource lower leaves more colors for other X clients.  Ir-
              relevant  when  using  truecolor.  Default  is  256 (i.e. all of
              them).

       useSharedColours
              If the number of "exact" BGR233 colors successfully allocated is
              less  than  256  then the rest are filled in using the "nearest"
              colors available. This resource says whether  to  only  use  the
              "exact"  BGR233 colors for this purpose, or whether to use other
              clients' "shared" colors as well. Default true (i.e.  use  other
              clients' colors).

       forceOwnCmap
              Equivalent of -owncmap option. Default false.

       forceTrueColour
              Equivalent of -truecolour option. Default false.

       requestedDepth
              Equivalent of -depth option.

       useSharedMemory
              Use  MIT shared memory extension if on the same machine as the X
              server. Default true.

       wmDecorationWidth, wmDecorationHeight
              The total width and height taken up by  window  manager  decora-
              tions.   This  is  used to calculate the maximum size of the VNC
              viewer window.  Default is width 4, height 24.

       bumpScrollTime, bumpScrollPixels
              When in full screen mode and the VNC desktop is bigger than  the
              X display, scrolling happens whenever the mouse hits the edge of
              the screen. The maximum speed of scrolling  is  bumpScrollPixels
              pixels  every  bumpScrollTime  milliseconds. The actual speed of
              scrolling will be slower than this, of course, depending on  how
              fast your machine is.  Default 20 pixels every 25 milliseconds.

       popupButtonCount
              The  number  of buttons in the popup window. See the README file
              for more information on how to customize the buttons.

       debug  For debugging. Default false.

       rawDelay, copyRectDelay
              For debugging, see the README file for details. Default 0 (off).

ENVIRONMENT
       When started with the -via option, vncviewer reads the VNC_VIA_CMD  en-
       vironment  variable, expands patterns beginning with the "%" character,
       and executes result as a command assuming that it would create TCP tun-
       nel  that  should be used for VNC connection. If not set, this environ-
       ment variable defaults to "/usr/bin/ssh -f -L %L:%H:%R %G sleep 20".

       The following patterns are recognized in the VNC_VIA_CMD (note that all
       the  patterns  %G,  %H,  %L  and %R must be present in the command tem-
       plate):

       %%     A literal "%";

       %G     gateway host name;

       %H     remote VNC host name, as known to the gateway;

       %L     local TCP port number;

       %R     remote TCP port number.

SEE ALSO
       vncserver(1), Xvnc(1), vncpasswd(1), vncconnect(1), ssh(1)

AUTHORS
       Original VNC was developed in AT&T Laboratories Cambridge. TightVNC ad-
       ditions  were  implemented  by  Constantin Kaplinsky. Many other people
       participated in development, testing and support.

       Man page authors:
       Marcus Brinkmann <Marcus.Brinkmann@ruhr-uni-bochum.de>,
       Terran Melconian <terran@consistent.org>,
       Tim Waugh <twaugh@redhat.com>,
       Constantin Kaplinsky <const@tightvnc.com>

                                  August 2006                     vncviewer(1)

Updated on: 2021-Sep-16